Wheels of Emotion

Plutchik-wheel.svg

In 1980, Robert Plutchik constructed a wheel-like diagram of emotions visualising eight basic emotions: Joy, Trust, Fear, Surprise, Sadness, Disgust, Anger and Anticipation. The wheel combines the ideas of circles representing emotions and a color wheel. Similar emotions in the wheel are adjacent. The wheel was inspired by “Plutchik’s Ten Postulates”, a list of theorems which include some of the emotions listed below. The wheel is one of the most influential emotional theories today, although it has been frequently criticised for its lack of a longer list of emotions. Plutchik also theorized twenty-four “Primary”, “Secondary”, and “Tertiary” dyads (a feeling composed of two emotions). Due to the nature of the wheel, the emotions are arranged in pairs according to behavioural and evolutionary mechanisms. The ways the emotions can be paired up are listed here:

  • Primary dyad = one petal apart = Love = Joy + Trust
  • Secondary dyad = two petals apart = Envy = Sadness + Anger
  • Tertiary dyad = three petals apart = Shame = Fear + Disgust
  • Opposite emotions = four petals apart = AnticipationSurprise

Emotions also come in a variety of intensities;for example, Distraction is a mild form of Surprise, and Rage is an intense form of Anger. Weaker emotions lay among the outer circles and stronger emotions bloom in the middle. The kinds of relation between each pair of emotions follow below:

Mild emotion Mild opposite Basic emotion Basic opposite Intense emotion Intense opposite
Serenity Pensiveness Joy Sadness Ecstasy Grief
Acceptance Boredom Trust Disgust Admiration Loathing
Apprehension Annoyance Fear Anger Terror Rage
Distraction Interest Surprise Anticipation Amazement Vigilance
Dyads (Combinations)
Human feelings Emotions Opposite feelings Emotions
Optimism Anticipation + Joy Disapproval Surprise + Sadness
Hope Anticipation + Trust Unbelief Surprise + Disgust
Anxiety Anticipation + Fear Outrage Surprise + Anger
Love Joy + Trust Remorse Sadness + Disgust
Guilt Joy + Fear Envy Sadness + Anger
Delight Joy + Surprise Pessimism Sadness + Anticipation
Submission Trust + Fear Contempt Disgust + Anger
Curiosity Trust + Surprise Cynicism Disgust + Anticipation
Sentimentality Trust + Sadness Morbidness Disgust + Joy
Awe Fear + Surprise Aggression Anger + Anticipation
Despair Fear + Sadness Pride Anger + Joy
Shame Fear + Disgust Dominance Anger + Trust
Jessica Hagy’s Combinations
Human feelings Emotions Opposite feelings Emotions
Acknowledgement Serenity + Acceptance Listlessness Pensiveness + Boredom
Devotion Ecstasy + Admiration Shame Grief + Loathing
Acquiescence Acceptance + Apprehension Impatience Boredom + Annoyance
Subservience Admiration + Terror Hatred Loathing + Rage
Wariness Apprehension + Distraction Disfavor Annoyance + Interest
Petrification Terror + Amazement Domination Rage + Vigilance
Dismay Distraction + Pensiveness Bemusement Interest + Serenity
Horror Amazement + Grief Zeal Vigilance + Ecstasy

The Hourglass of Emotions

In 2012, a scientific research book called The Hourglass of Emotions was largely based on Robert Plutchik’s model, but categorised his emotions into four sentic dimensions. It contrasted Anger, Anticipation, Joy, and Trust as positive emotions, and Fear, Surprise, Sadness and Disgust as negative.

Dimension +3 +2 +1 -1 -2 -3
Sensitivity Rage Anger Annoyance Apprehension Fear Terror
Attention Vigilance Anticipation Interest Distraction Surprise Amazement
Pleasantness Ecstasy Joy Serenity Pensiveness Sadness Grief
Aptitude Admiration Trust Acceptance Boredom Disgust Loathing
Advanced emotions
Dimensions High Sensitivity Low Sensitivity High Pleasantness Low Pleasantness
High Attention Aggressiveness Anxiety Optimism Frustration
Low Attention Rejection Awe Frivolity Disapproval
High Aptitude Rivalry Submission Love Envy
Low Aptitude Contempt Coercion Gloat Remorse
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How long will fossil fuels last?

It is argued that oil will run out in 53 years, natural gas in 54, and coal in 110. How likely is it?

The end, said a reincarnated Cassandra, is nigh. Abundant supplies of fossil fuels will end, bringing down the economic order with it. After all, she argued, at current rates of production, oil will run out in 53 years, natural gas in 54, and coal in 110. We have managed to deplete these fossil fuels – which have their origins somewhere between 541 and 66 million years ago – in less than 200 years since we started using them.

Cassandra – the Princess of Troy – had been blessed with the gift of prophesy by the Greek God, Apollo. In her modern avatar, she projected how many years these fuels would last by measuring the R/P ratios (that is the ratio of reserves to current rates of production) of fossil fuels. She juxtaposed it with the World Energy Outlook study by the International Energy Agency, which estimated that even with aggressive climate action policies; fossil fuels will constitute 59% of the total primary energy demand in 2040.
This is partly because even though renewable sources such as wind and solar continue to become cheaper by the passing day; there are considerable roadblocks in the adoption of these sources. Among other impediments, we are yet to zero in on viable and scalable energy storage technologies that would address the intermittency issues of renewables. The sun, after all, doesn’t shine at night. Further, fossil fuel based technologies and institutions have been “locked in” to the economy: it would take decades to replace the oil, coal and gas guzzling infrastructure that continues to be added afresh today.
The link between energy poverty and human development is also strong, which has prompted nations to heavily subsidies fossil fuels. Weaning away from these subsidies will have political implications which governments will attempt to avoid or delay. To make matters trickier, developing nations, in particular India and those in Africa, will contribute to the growing thirst for energy.
Could Cassandra then possibly be correct: will we run out of fossil fuels before we make a successful transition towards other sources of energy? This has been the conventional thinking among a set of scholars over the past few decades. In the 1950s, Geo scientist M. King Hubbert proposed the Peak Oil theory that has gone on to influence thinking about resource production. According to Hubbert, as oil is a finite resource, the production of oil would peak at some point and ultimately decline and deplete. Many researchers, Hubbert included, postulated that peak production is already behind us, and that we are now seeing a decline. If indeed Peak Oil has passed us by, and if the R/P ratios indicate only five decades of oil and gas, and a century of coal remaining, then an energy-crunch awaits.
Fortunately, Cassandra was not only blessed with the gift of prophesy, she had also been cursed by Apollo: the curse being that no one would believe her prophesies. Just this once, it’s probably with good reason. Firstly, the R/P ratios only consider proven reserves, not probable or possible reserves of resources. New reserves continue to be added to the pool, and the R/P ratios have actually increased over the past few decades along with rising production. For instance, in 1980, the R/P ratio suggested only 32 years of oil production from existing reserves. With technological advances, reserves that were previously deemed unviable to tap have kept coming on board. Various studies show that the total remaining recoverable oil resources would last 190 years, natural gas 230 years, and coal, a whopping 2900 years.
These numbers apply if current rates of production hold for centuries to come, which may not be the case. Rather than Peak Oil (or Gas or Coal), a ‘Peak Demand’ of these resources is likelier to occur. Even though demand from growing economies will rise in the coming decades, fossil fuel demand from the largest economies in the world is already falling due to improving efficiency and an on-going transition away from coal, which is a part of their climate strategies. A cultural shift is also being witnessed: for instance even in a very petrol head nation like the United States, public transport use is now at a five decade high. Vehicle aggregation apps and automated cars in the future further promise energy saving.
In all likelihood, demand for fossil fuels will ultimately peak and then begin to fall – the big question is when. Just as the Stone Age did not end because we ran out of stones, the Fossil Fuel Age will not end because we will run out of fossil fuels. Reserves will likely stay in the ground, far after societies have moved on from them.

ROAR

Screenshot (179).pngI used to bite my tongue and hold my breath
Scared to rock the boat and make a mess
So I sat quietly, agreed politely
I guess that I forgot I had a choice
I let you push me past the breaking point
I stood for nothing, so I fell for everything

You held me down, but I got up (hey!)
Already brushing off the dust
You hear my voice, your hear that sound
Like thunder, gonna shake your ground
You held me down, but I got up
Get ready ’cause I’ve had enough
I see it all, I see it now

I got the eye of the tiger, a fighter
Dancing through the fire
‘Cause I am the champion, and you’re gonna hear me roar
Louder, louder than a lion
‘Cause I am a champion, and you’re gonna hear me roar!

Oh oh oh oh oh oh oh oh
Oh oh oh oh oh oh oh oh
Oh oh oh oh oh oh oh oh
You’re gonna hear me roar!

Now I’m floating like a butterfly
Stinging like a bee I earned my stripes
I went from zero, to my own hero

You held me down, but I got up (hey!)
Already brushing off the dust
You hear my voice, your hear that sound
Like thunder, gonna shake the ground
You held me down, but I got up
Get ready ’cause I’ve had enough
I see it all, I see it now

I got the eye of the tiger, a fighter
Dancing through the fire
‘Cause I am the champion, and you’re gonna hear me roar
Louder, louder than a lion
‘Cause I am a champion, and you’re gonna hear me roar!

Oh oh oh oh oh oh oh oh
Oh oh oh oh oh oh oh oh
Oh oh oh oh oh oh oh oh
You’re gonna hear me roar!

Oh oh oh oh oh oh oh oh
Oh oh oh oh oh oh oh oh
Oh oh oh oh oh oh oh oh
You’re gonna hear me roar!

Roar, roar, roar, roar, roar!

I got the eye of the tiger, a fighter
Dancing through the fire
‘Cause I am the champion, and you’re gonna hear me roar
Louder, louder than a lion
‘Cause I am a champion, and you’re gonna hear me roar!

Oh oh oh oh oh oh oh oh
Oh oh oh oh oh oh oh oh
Oh oh oh oh oh oh oh oh
You’re gonna hear me roar!

Oh oh oh oh oh oh oh oh
Oh oh oh oh oh oh oh oh
Oh oh oh oh oh oh oh oh
You’re gonna hear me roar!

i loved this song!!!

The lonely on Island

Is am I standing at the Island, where birds are chirruping?

I wan’t to be they live with me;

But they had wings with they can fly,

I wan’t to be fly with them.

Time,

time has the ability to feel the sorrow, but they don’t  fill the loneliness;

Why there isn’t came any call from any part of the world,

and say i just wanna talk with you.

Is there having beauty in all pretty face?

or else they made after there attachment!

Is am i missing my sister?

or am i missing her love?

If i Had one i don’t let her to marry.

 

by- Jignesh Vekariya

 

Why it happens..

I was once sad and lonely,
Having nobody to comfort me,
So I wore a mask that always smiled,
To hide my feelings behind a lie.

Before long, I had many friends;
With my mask, I was one of them.
But deep inside I still felt empty,
Like I was missing a part of me.

Nobody could hear my cries at night,
For I designed my mask to hide the lies.
Nobody could see the pain I was feeling,
For I designed my mask to be laughing.

Behind all the smiles were the tears
And behind all the comfort were the fears.
Everything you think you see
Wasn’t everything there was to me.

Day by day
I was slowly dying.
I couldn’t go on,
There was something missing..

Until now I’m still searching
For the thing that’ll stop my crying,
For someone who’ll erase my fears,
For the person who’ll wipe my tears.

But till then, I’ll keep on smiling.
Hiding behind this mask I’m wearing.
Hoping one day I can smile,
Till then, I’ll be here…waiting.

 

Random Thought

A human is a handshake between spirit and matter.
If faith can move mountains, just imagine what knowledge can do.
A magnet can convert a piece of steel into another magnet,
but what made the magnet a magnet?
If we could just trust the universe to know what it is doing,
we would have more joy and less fear.
Money is the essence of matter; it never leaves the earth.
The universe is a great magnet teaching us little pins to act like it.
A loving thought is as deep as the night sky.
The “Great Books of the Western World” are like newspapers next to the Book of Life.
When wealth speaks, greed listens.
Computers can be mirrors in which we admire our minds and forget our souls.
We crawl through life like caterpillars, fearing the final cocoon that alone leads
to freedom and glory.

Night Thought

Sleepless tonight inside my skin and bones,
I feel that life must be a cruel curse—
Begun with squall, cut off with pain and groans,
A little joke told by the universe.
Why am I here? What accident of fate
Breathed life into this form I occupy?
What kind of God would bother to create
A fragile human life, then let it die?
A voice within my heart says, “Mend your ways,
And light inside your consciousness will gleam.
Your bleakness, like the earth, delays dawn’s rays,
But love and hope will end your desperate dream.
“Depression fills agnosticism’s night,
But soon your soul must rise and follow light.”